A Directive on Packaging & Packaging Waste passed in December 1994 to "harmonize" the European Union's 15 members' individual laws. Today however each country is going in its own direction causing major confusion for those who design packaging. While distributors handle most of the fees and paperwork North American packagers may find some of their designs will cost dearly to market in Europe-the regulations can turn design and lifecycle priorities upside down. Companies that market worldwide are finding that Western Europe is just the beginning. Eastern Europe is already looking to tax and regulate packaging while several Asian countries are implementing their own versions of "producer responsibility." The European Directive requires that by July 2001 countries recover a minimum of 50% of their used packaging (i.e. recycle compost or waste-to-energy etc.); the total material recycling rate must be 25% with no material recycled at less than 15%. Member states recovering more than 65% or recycling more than 45% must demonstrate they have enough capacity to handle the material. Exceptions: Greece Ireland and Portugal have until the end of 2005 to meet these targets and will only be held to 25% recovery of used packaging by July 2001. While the Directive's intent was to "harmonize" national measures on package recycling about the only thing constant are the set of goals and eventually the required symbols on the packages. Each country can set up its own "economic instruments" (read: taxes deposits or a combination) and each country can stress different types of packaging from different sources. There will often be separate systems for sales and transport packaging complicating the patchwork.